The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. REAFFIRMING that the UK`s withdrawal from the EU should not infringe on the rights and obligations of the Republic of Cyprus under EU law or on the rights and obligations of the parties to the founding treaty, the agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the other 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it faced opposition from the British Parliament, which needed approval for ratification. The approval of the European Parliament would also have been necessary. On January 15, 2019, the House of Commons rejected the withdrawal agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242 on 12 March 2019 and rejected it a third time, on 29 March 2019, by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government approved the first phase in Parliament, but Johnson halted the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme failed to receive the necessary support and announced his intention to declare a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the withdrawal agreement; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the withdrawal agreement.
It was then concluded by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. The United Kingdom has similar agreements with the EEA-EFTA states (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) and Switzerland. You can read: 1. The United Kingdom ensures that no reduction in rights, guarantees or equal opportunities results from its withdrawal from the EU, including in the area of protection against discrimination, as provided for by the provisions of EU law in Appendix 1 of Annex 1 of the 1998 agreement. , and implements this paragraph through specific mechanisms. 5. The reasonable period of time may be extended by mutual agreement between the EU and the United Kingdom. REAFFIRMING that the rules applicable to relations between the Union and the basic sovereign territories after the UK`s withdrawal from the Union should continue to be established within the framework of the accession of the Republic of Cyprus to the Union, 2; In the event that the EU and the United Kingdom reach agreement on their future relations in the areas of the common foreign and security policy and the common security and defence policy that comes into force during the transitional period, Chapter V of the TUE and the acts adopted on the basis of these provisions no longer apply to the United Kingdom from the date of implementation of this agreement. 6. The border between the Eastern Sovereign Base Area and the territories of the Republic of Cyprus in which the Government of the Republic of Cyprus does not exercise effective control is treated, during the suspension of the application of the acquis in accordance with Article 1 of Protocol 10, as part of the external borders of the basic sovereign territories covered by this article.